Thursday, September 3, 2020

Estoppel and Business Relationship

Question: Talk about the Estoppel and Business Relationship. Answer: Presentation In the announcement gave by Ashhurst J in Lickbarrow v Mason (1787) 2 Term Rep 63, HL at 70 it expresses that when two individuals who are guiltless when influenced by the exercises of the third individual. At that point the individual who had helped the third individual would be held at risk. This has been clarified in Section 14 of the Partnership demonstration 1982. Organization is characterized as the connection that is found to exists between people in a business situation. They have a typical perspective on achieving benefits. In organization firms the accomplice will be held at risk in the event that they their accomplices don't know about the banks of the organizations. The risk has been applied for this situation The reason for this investigation is to investigate the subtleties of estoppel that has been characterized in the Section 14 of the Partnership Acts 1892 (NSW).There will be basic examination of the legitimacy of the case that has been made by the Partnership demonstration of 1982. The subtleties of the definition and the points of interest and detriments of the association by estoppel have been tested in this examination. Definition and Clear Identification of the Requirements of a Partnership by Estoppel/Holding Out As indicated by this idea when party A has been considered as an accomplice by party B when witnesses are available and for this situation if party A didn't deny the case made by the gathering B then according to the law party A will be considered as subject to pay the loan bosses. According to the law A will be considered as an accomplice. In these circumstance estoppel emerges attributable to the exchanges that has been associated with verbal correspondence. The loan boss need not know about the genuine circumstance. Estoppel emerges at whatever point one gathering engaged with the agreement makes an attestation or portrayal that is considered as truth. In this circumstance the other party follows up on the factor that demonstrates others. In this the first party who had made the case is estopped from denying reality in the announcement. They just can work on the worldview of the circumstance that has been introduced to them. The prerequisite of association by the idea of estoppel is that there ought to be a seeing third part present when there has been an organization understanding that has been shaped. The observer must accept that the accomplice is an individual from the association firms. There ought to be some type of understanding either by verbal or composed understanding that believes an individual to be an accomplice of the firm. This isn't restricted to the understanding regardless of whether a portion of the exercises of a gathering can believe them to be an accomplice. In these conditions the law would announce the other individual as an accomplice by the idea of estopped. They would all be answerable for the liabilities acquired. In the event that a specific accomplice is making bogus cases or distortion and the related gatherings are not so much doing anything then they would in any case be viewed as subject for the cases that has been made. To sum up the most significant necessity for a specific association is that there ought to be where the l easer has played out the exchanges. Basic assessment of the prerequisites of an association by estoppel/holding out showing their legitimizations Area 14 of the Partnership demonstration expresses that everybody, who decides to cause a to find out either by verbal, composed or lead makes a portrayal. They intentionally make a presumption and is spoken to as a piece of the organization who goes into an authoritative understanding. They are at risk to the first cases or affirmation that has been made. The gatherings who make a specific case must adhere to the portrayal of the first decision they had made. The Section 14 subtleties that an individual who is spoken to as an accomplice or an outside specialist who partake in the agreement gives a portrayal of the organizations. Their portrayal gives credit to the structure. This individual turns into an accomplice by estoppel. On account of instance of association there is a guardian duty that exists between the accomplices. Birtchnell v Equity Trustees Executors and Agency Co Ltdexplains the obligation of the association with one another. An association depends on the shared trust and certainty. This is clarified on account of Cameron v Murdoch For this situation there are sure advantages just as disservices. The advantage is that the loan boss ought to be repaid independent of the organization understanding. The individuals begin to frame better decisions as a speak to themselves. Leonard v. Brewer, No. 01-12-01057-CV, 2013 WL 6199572. For this situation Brewer was made subject to take care of the loan boss for the sake o the BW office. For this situation Brewer activity as considered as a demonstration of the accomplice. The law guarantees that the lenders are ensured. There are likewise sure restrictions of this understanding. At times the accomplice by estoppel is made obligated to take care of the obligations of the other individual regardless of whether they were not so much included. On account of Chavers v. Epsco, Inc.98 S.W.3d 421 (Ark. 2003) The sone and little girl were considered as accomplices of the firm only of their relationship to Chavers. In this there was no genuine activity by the child or the little gir l comparable to the case. The issue with the association by estoppel is that it doesn't generally consider the different points invole racket the organization understanding. It only makes as suppositions and follows up on it. There are three conditions where the organization by estoppel is thought of. In this setting estoppel implies that is the individual communicated or acted in a specific circumstance the other individual can act to their own burden. At that point the individual who made the first portrayal won't have the option to deny reality. This was clarified plainly on account of Re Buchanan Co. For this situation it was held that the segment places obligation upon the individual who speak to themselves of permits themselves to be spoken to as an accomplice however as a general rule are not real accomplices. So as to acquire risk three tests must be satisfied. The primary condition is that the portrayal that was made that the individual is an accomplice. This should be possible either by the individual record or the accomplices. It is the subject of how the portrayal has been made. On account of Martyn v Gray (1863) this was built up. For this situation accepting litigant illuminates X organizati on that he is the first accomplice of a business firm and the X organization them educates the offended party a similar data then it was said that the offended party expected the respondent to be the individuals from the organizations. For this situation the respondent is viewed as obligated at the cost. The subsequent condition is that the credit ought to be given by an outsider who accept the portrayal to be valid. The credit would include getting the property or bringing about the commitment that has been made. The outsider ought to depend on the portrayal this is the third condition. The instance of Tower Cabinet Co LTD v Ingram sets up this statement. For this situation the issue of the gatherings information on portrayal of the respondent will be thought of. In this specific case Ingram didn't know about Christmas. Ingram and Christmas were beforehand accomplices and they had consented to disintegration. Nonetheless, Christmas kept on utilizing the past letterhead of the organ ization when they were accomplices with Ingram. This demonstration by Christmas was not known to Ingram. There was no composed confirmation or direct that pointed towards the information on Christmas activity and the association of Ingram. For this situation inferable from this reality Ingram was held no at risk for the harms caused by Tower Cabinet organization. Henceforth the factor of information is a significant perspective in the assurance of the case. As indicated by the provisions of the law, the association by estoppel permits the court to give some type of compensation to the offended party. Basically for this to happen the offended party ought to demonstrate that the activities of the respondent were impeding to the first terms of the authoritative understanding. For this situation the offended party has the weight of demonstrating that the association was to be sure founded on the organization of estopped. Offended party must demonstrate to the courts that they depended on the association, the litigant help himself in the spot of the organization and the obligation acquired by the offended party. On the off chance that the offended party can demonstrate this reality, at that point they judge will arrange some type of remediation or recuperation of the harms for the offended party. End Area 14 of the Partnership Act 1982, plainly clarifies the idea driving estoppel by waiting. As indicated by this an individual is viewed as an accomplice of a firm in the event that they are spoken to as an accomplice of the firm in nearness of witness and they don't deny the association. For this situation the courts will esteem the individual to be an organization. All the accomplices of the organizations is subject to repay their banks. There are numerous advantages and issues. Advantage of this framework is that the banks premium is secured. It embraces a homogenous methodology and doesn't factor in the subtleties of each case. This is the confinement of this law. Reference Andrews, Neil.Contract law. (Cambridge University Press, 2015). Cooke, Elizabeth. Cooperating Contract, Estoppel and the Business Relationship.(2002) 1J. Commitments Remedies 5. Ewart, John S. Debatability and Estoppel.(1900)16 LQ Rev. 135. Ewart, John Skirving.An piece of the standards of estoppel by deception. (Carswell, 1900). Gregory, William.Law of Agency and Partnership, 3d Hornbook Series. (West Academic, 2007). Robertson, Andrew. Dependence and desire in estoppel remedies.(1998)18 (3) Legal Studies 360-368. Yan, Wang On the Historical Development and Trend of Estoppel System. (2007)4 Journal of Hubei Radio Televison University 034.

Saturday, August 22, 2020

The ways in which Thomas Hardy uses setting to help portray Tess feelings Essays

The manners by which Thomas Hardy uses setting to help depict Tess sentiments Essays The manners by which Thomas Hardy uses setting to help depict Tess emotions Paper The manners by which Thomas Hardy uses setting to help depict Tess sentiments Paper Article Topic: Writing In 1891 Thomas Hardy distributed the novel Tess of the DUrbervilles which is a story dependent on the life and times of a homestead young lady named Tess. Tess is a multi year old young lady of lower class whose family horse kicks the bucket in a mishap and her family are battling for cash so Tess goes to visit far off family members to request to get cash to help bolster her family. While with her family members she meets her cousin Alec. She leaves the DUrbervilles home pregnant with Alecs child and returns to live with her folks. She brings forth an infant kid and names him Sorrow who later turns out to be sick and passes on. After three years Tess experiences passionate feelings for a man called Angel, they get hitched anyway Tess admits to what occurred with Alec and Angel leaves her. Tess meets Alec who is an alleged changed man and he has become an evangelist. Tess informs him concerning Sorrow and he persuades Tess that Angel is rarely returning and she returns to live with him. Following a couple of months living with Alec, Angel comes back to discover Tess and disclose to her he despite everything adores her. Tess murders Alec and pursues Angel and they flee together, anyway not long after they are gotten and Tess is hanged for the homicide of Alec. The story begins by presenting Tess whos living in Marlott with her family and going to advertise with her pony. They have a mishap in transit there and the pony is executed. So Tess leaves her home and goes to discover her family to obtain some cash to support her family. In Chapter 14 Tess returns to live with her family and is pregnant with Alecs infant who before long turns out to be sick and is passing on. Tess doesnt need her kid to bite the dust without being dedicated so she initiates him herself (as the vicar will not initiate him since he was conceived with only one parent present. furthermore, names him Sorrow. Distress bites the dust that night and Tess covers him around evening time in a memorial park in Marlott. Thomas Hardy uses the setting to depict the sentiments Tess has and the circumstance she is in. For instance in the initial sentence of section 14 the landscape is portrayed as a dim dawn in August. August is the season when all the plants start to kick the bucket and all leaves tumble off the trees, additionally it is the season not long before winter which is depicted as the most hopeless season depicting that things to come will deteriorate for Tess. Toward the finish of part 14 when Tess covers Sorrow in the churchyard that night. The obscurity is another method of indicating Tess emotions that her life is dull and void now without her infant and she is embarrassed however she has no motivation to be. Additionally her covering her youngster around evening time shows Hardys emotions about the circumstance as that he can't help contradicting what Tess needed to experience. Part 16 beginnings with Tess leaving her home to escape from before and start another life. Seasons are utilized again to show the sentiments of Tess as spring after her winter. Spring is the period of new life and re-development identifying with the plants and creatures. Spring after her winter recommends Tess is beginning once more and her life is gazing upward analyzed for her previous months which are portrayed as her winter. Anyway inside the brilliant view there is what is portrayed as a dim fix in the landscape where her futile progenitors were covered. This connotes the dim fix on her life that will consistently be there to help her to remember what Alec did to her yet she is proceeding onward with her life. Parts 43 and 47 are after Angel leaves her and she goes to work in Flintcomb Ash. This is a truly depressed spot in Tess life as the work is hard and she is returned to by Alec. Alec gets some answers concerning there child Sorrow and resents first however welcomes Tess to come and live with him. Alec is an alleged changed man and is presently a Preacher. He persuades Tess Angel is failing to come back for her thus she goes to live with him. Thomas Hardys depictions of the landscape around Tess and the manner in which he depicts Tess emotions has a significant impact in the novel sorting the story out and helping the peruser truly comprehend the story and identify with Tess. Strong can likewise do this by utilizing procedures, for example, unfortunate false notion and analogies the climate eagerness of youth gives life assaulted removes it. . Hardys depictions additionally gives you how he felt about the way Tess was dealt with and how he feels about how life was back like how he can't help contradicting the way that ladies we treated and how they had no rights. This bigly affects todays crowd and furthermore the crowd of back when the novel was composed. It would cause the crowd to acknowledge how uncalled for the manner in which ladies were dealt with was and possibly make them ponder the rights ladies ought to have. For todays crowd it makes you perceive how much society has changed and the perspectives on ladies have improved and how both genders are dealt with similarly now in examination with during the 1890s when the novel was distributed. I feel that without Hardys portrayals of setting the novel would not be fascinating and as grasping and you wouldnt feel so close and associated with the characters. His portrayals truly make the story increasingly extreme and fascinating.

Friday, August 21, 2020

Comparative Colonization in Asia

Near Colonization in Asia A few diverse Western European forces built up states in Asia during the eighteenth and nineteenth hundreds of years. Every one of the royal forces had its own style of organization, and pilgrim officials from the various countries likewise showed different mentalities towards their royal subjects. Incredible Britain The British Empire was the biggest on the planet before World War II and remembered various spots for Asia. Those regions incorporate what is presently Oman, Yemen, the United Arab Emirates, Kuwait, Iraq, Jordan, Palestine, Myanmar (Burma), Sri Lanka (Ceylon), the Maldives, Singapore, Malaysia (Malaya), Brunei, Sarawak and North Borneo (presently part of Indonesia), Papua New Guinea, and Hong Kong. The crown gem of all of Britains abroad belongings around the globe, obviously, was India. English frontier officials and British homesteaders, when all is said in done, considered themselves to be models of reasonable play, and in principle, in any event, the entirety of the crowns subjects should be equivalent under the steady gaze of the law, paying little mind to their race, religion, or ethnicity. Regardless, British colonials held themselves separated from nearby individuals more than different Europeans, employing local people as local assistance, however once in a while intermarrying with them. To some extent, this may have been because of an exchange of British thoughts regarding the division of classes to their abroad settlements. The British took a paternalistic perspective on their frontier subjects, feeling an obligation - the white keeps an eye on trouble, as Rudyard Kipling put it - to Christianize and acculturate the people groups of Asia, Africa, and the New World. In Asia, the story goes, Britain assembled streets, railroads, and governments, and procured a national fixation on tea. This facade of refinement and philanthropy immediately disintegrated, notwithstanding, if an enslaved people ascended. England mercilessly put down the Indian Revolt of 1857 and fiercely tormented charged members in Kenyas Mau Rebellion (1952 - 1960). At the point when starvation struck Bengal in 1943, Winston Churchills government not exclusively did nothing to take care of Bengalis, it really diverted down food help from the US and Canada implied for India. France In spite of the fact that France looked for a broad pioneer domain in Asia, its thrashing in the Napoleonic Wars left it with only a bunch of Asian regions. Those incorporated the twentieth century orders of Lebanon and Syria, and all the more particularly the key state of French Indochina - what is currently Vietnam, Laos, and Cambodia. French mentalities about frontier subjects were, here and there, very unique in relation to those of their British rivals. Some hopeful French looked for to rule their provincial property, yet to make a Greater France wherein every French subject the world over genuinely would be equivalent. For instance, the North African state of Algeria turned into a division, or a region, of France, complete with parliamentary portrayal. This distinction in disposition might be because of Frances grasp of Enlightenment thinking, and to the French Revolution, which had separated a portion of the class obstructions that despite everything requested society in Britain. In any case, French colonizers additionally felt the white keeps an eye on weight of bringing alleged human advancement and Christianity to brutal subject people groups. On an individual level, French colonials were more adept than the British to wed neighborhood ladies and make a social combination in their frontier societies. Some French racial scholars, for example, Gustave Le Bon and Arthur Gobineau, be that as it may, discredited this propensity as a defilement of Frenchmens intrinsic hereditary prevalence. As time went on, social constrain expanded for French colonials to safeguard the immaculateness of the French race. In French Indochina, in contrast to Algeria, the pioneer rulers didn't build up huge settlements. French Indochina was a monetary settlement, intended to deliver a benefit for the nation of origin. In spite of the absence of pilgrims to secure, be that as it may, France rushed to bounce into a ridiculous war with the Vietnamese when they opposed a French return after World War II. Today, little Catholic people group, an affection for loaves and croissants, and some really pioneer engineering are such survives from obvious French impact in Southeast Asia. The Netherlands The Dutch contended and battled for control of the Indian Ocean exchange courses and flavor creation with the British, through their separate East India Companies. At long last, the Netherlands lost Sri Lanka to the British, and in 1662, lost Taiwan (Formosa) to the Chinese, yet held authority over the vast majority of the rich flavor islands that currently make up Indonesia. For the Dutch, this pilgrim undertaking was about cash. There was an almost no falsification of social improvement or Christianization of the barbarians - the Dutch needed benefits, plain and simple. As an outcome, they indicated no misgivings about mercilessly catching local people and utilizing them as slave work on the estates, or in any event, doing a slaughter of the considerable number of occupants of the Banda Islands to ensure their restraining infrastructure on the nutmeg and mace exchange. Portugal After Vasco da Gama adjusted the southern finish of Africa in 1497, Portugal turned into the main European capacity to pick up ocean access to Asia. In spite of the fact that the Portuguese rushed to investigate and make a case for different beach front pieces of India, Indonesia, Southeast Asia, and China, its capacity blurred in the seventeenth and eighteenth hundreds of years, and the British, Dutch, and French had the option to push Portugal out of a large portion of its Asian cases. By the twentieth century, what remained was Goa, on the southwest bank of India; East Timor; and the southern Chinese port at Macau. Despite the fact that Portugal was not the most scary European magnificent force, it had the most fortitude. Goa stayed Portuguese until India attached it forcibly in 1961; Macau was Portuguese until 1999 when the Europeans at last gave it back to China, and East Timor or Timor-Leste officially got free just in 2002.â Portuguese guideline in Asia was by turns heartless (as when they started catching Chinese youngsters to sell into subjection in Portugal), languid, and underfunded. Like the French, Portuguese homesteaders were not restricted to blending in with neighborhood people groups and making creole populaces. Maybe the most significant quality of the Portuguese supreme mentality, be that as it may, was Portugals obstinacy and refusal to pull back, much after the other majestic forces had quit for the day. Portuguese dominion was driven by a true want to spread Catholicism and make huge amounts of cash. It was likewise motivated by patriotism; initially, a craving to demonstrate the countrys may as it came free from Moorish standard, and in later hundreds of years, the glad emphasis on clutching the states as an image of past supreme greatness.

Saturday, June 13, 2020

Death of Osama Bin Laden Effect on Al-Qaeda Essay - 550 Words

Death of Osama Bin Laden: Effect on Al-Qaeda (Essay Sample) Content: Death of Osama Bin Laden: Effect on Al-QaedaStudents nameInstitution affiliatedDeath of Osama Bin Laden: Effect on Al-QaedaAl-Qaeda, a terrorist association, boasts of being supported from groups and individuals from all corners of the globe. Unfortunately, the organization suffered a major blow when their founding father, Osama bin Laden, was murdered in a military operation by U.S. commandos back in Pakistan. In spite of the fact that the death of Osama was a major setback to al Qaeda, US state department still classifies the group as a foreign terrorist organization. The EU talks about it as a terrorist group. The killing of the man who was responsible for running the organization had a vast impact on its leaderships (LuÃÅ'sted, 2012).The demise of Osama has rendered the Al-Qaeda association immaterial. Since his passing, the number of organized Al-Qaeda exercises has decreased. The expressions from the leaders of high ranks in the association have declined. The a ssociation needs alluring authority prompting debate and clashes among the top leaders. The subsidiaries and establishments of Al-Qaeda have lost the center of proclaiming war on the west. Gatherings, for example, the Taliban, have lost the course for obsession and extremism. The assaults of 9/11 were huge prompting a hostile crusade against terrorism that made it to a great degree difficult for the terrorist gathering to arrange and execute a similar assault. The US technique of using automated strikes on the Al-Qaeda top administration is helping in neutralizing the group further (Gartenstein-Ross, 2011). Osama Bin Laden had accomplished mythic status as an image of global terrorism. Without a doubt, as the pioneer of Al-Qaeda, Osama announced war on the US and its partners. He organized and facilitated the assault of US consulates in Kenya and Tanzania in 1998, 9/11 assaults, and separate assaults in London and Madrid. The executing of Bin Laden, consequently, had typical and ins tructive consequences on the gathering. The executing of his deputies, whom he depended on to arrange and execute the terrorist demonstrations, managed a further blow. The association keeps on suffering from the loss of their principal leaders. The association is yet to fill the void left by the demise of Osama with an individual with the sufficient appeal, for example, Osama Bin Laden. Osama's identity had the capacity to pull in young fellows from the Arabic, West, and South Asia districts (Landau, 2012).Osama's demise has had an impact on Al-Qaeda capacity to be a cognizant and strong terrorist group. The expanding terrible reputation of the gathering that it prompted the passing of more Muslims injured it. The demise of the Muslims was viewed as collateral damage in the battle against the NATO and US forces in Iraq and Afghanistan. This prompted a decrease in the quantity of assaults by the gathering on foreign interest in the Muslim countries. The individuals in the Muslim coun tries do not concur with the philosophies of Al-Qaeda radicalism yet simply the expanded American or western impact. Al-Qaeda's belief systems include assaulting and murdering blameless lives, which do not fit in with Muslim standards (Sorcher, 2011).In conclusion, Al-Qaeda Group has a reduced influence and scope; however, its members are still operating. Aside from the areas that experience steady strains, other affiliates, for example, Somalias Al-Shabaab, Nigerias Boko Haram and others in Asia keep on threatening in territorial clashes. The terrorist gatherings keep on exploiting the Al-Qaeda brand to accomplish their great finishes such as upholding Shari...

Sunday, May 17, 2020

Free Market Economy Essay - 461 Words

A free market is a type of market that the government is not involved in. Since the government does not care about what happens, the free market is also called â€Å"hands-off† or â€Å"let it be economics†. The government is limited to protect the citizens from the danger and that is the major goal for the government. In the free market economy, there are three components of the free market economy: competition, active but limited government, and the self-interest. Competition is one of the main components of the free market economy. Competition means that the companies compete with one another to make more benefits to themselves. According to the concept of the free market economy, the competition means a good thing because it is a basic†¦show more content†¦The government does not necessarily need to intervene how the marker goes. Therefore, the competition is a significant factor of the free marker economy.Active but limited government is another main part of the free market economy. This means that the government undertakes a significant, active role in the market, but at the same time the government’s role is ver limited because all the investments and decisions in the economy are controlled by the market than by the government. An invisible hand will control the market. Limited government is a type of government in which there is a minimum intervention in personal properties. Overall, the government tries to keep the economy in a law and let it free by limiting itself. Hence, the limited government is an essential factor of the free market economy.Last, self-interest is a significant part of the free market economy. Self-interest refers to one’s desire to buy something. The market will be generally controlled by people’s interest; the companies will compete with one another to fit the best taste. This is because the people’s interest will be the main trend in the market and it will control what should be made in the market. Consequently, the market will be self-regulated according to the theory of a free market. Therefore, the self-interest is another significant factor of the free market economy.Therefore, the competition, theShow MoreRelatedFree Market Economy837 Words   |  3 PagesThe United States is known to operate in a free market economy. In other words, the economy is based solely on supply and demand with little to no government control. In reality, however, the United States has various government regulations on our country’s market. The amount of regulation that is necessary is a continuing debate among politicians and economists to this day. Some would say that the key to a successful market economy is to remove government restrictions in order to force businessesRead MoreFree Market Economies2080 Words   |  8 Pagescentury. 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Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Major League Baseball Players And Coaches Essay - 917 Words

This incident backs up Sandoval s comments regarding netting around the dugouts because foul balls sometimes hit players and coaches as well. In response to Mr. Coolbaugh s death, Major League Baseball quickly enacted a rule that base coaches have to wear helmets to protect them. Although this rule may ensure safety for coaches, fans remain unprotected from the threat of broken bats and foul balls. Major League Baseball players also wanted extended netting at the last two collective bargaining agreements but the idea was rejected by the owners. (SI Wire, 2015) Diamondbacks pitcher Brad Ziegler had an interesting take on the situation, â€Å"Some owners are afraid to upset the fans who pay the high ticket prices for these seats but when in reality, this being done would protect these fans from being fearful of their life.† (SI Wire, 2015) The players couldn’t be more right about the situation, especially Ziegler. The owners of professional teams seem way too concerned ab out money, rather than the protection of their fans. Patrons are seated too close to the field and stadiums are putting them at risk by refusing to install netting around the first and third base lines. According to Bloomberg News, there are an estimated 1,750 spectators that are injured at major league games and there are an estimated 53,000 foul balls that enter the seats every year. (Bumbaca, 2015) This should be a huge red flag for Major League Baseball because every time a foul ball enters the stands, thereShow MoreRelated Sports Agents Essay1738 Words   |  7 Pagesan athlete’s life. Agents can be considered professional mangers who find the best place for their client’s talent. Sports Agents have not been around for a long time. â€Å"Until the 1970’s, very few players had agents because teams would not deal with agents (Masteralexis, 244).† Many times players found that having an agent was a disadvantage to them. 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Research Proposal Information and Communication

Question: Discuss about the Research ProposalforInformation and Communication. Answer: Introduction World has advanced by leaps and bounds by the last decade and we are now in an age where information drives the requirements of society, economy, work, space, culture, etc. With this notion there is a philosophy among the research scholars that with the advancement of information technology we are in the middle of an information society. One concern regarding this development is how to make it more inclusive. However, the greatest hurdle with this advancement is the ways or procedures which would make this an inclusive phenomenon. A world summit was held wherein delegates from several societies had been invited to participate in the mutual exchange of ideas and representatives of government and civil society organizations from 175 countries had participated wherein this resolution was passed: " common desire and commitment to build a people-centred, inclusive and development-oriented Information Society, where everyone can create, access, utilize, and share information and knowledge, enabling individuals, communities and peoples to achieve their full potential in promoting their sustainable development and improving their quality of life" . This has made it imperative for the government that they take active part in the global information technology advancement process for the upliftment of their country and the world as a whole. But before the government takes any step towards implementing policies which would initiate the growth and development of information technology, there is a strong need to identify and evaluate the underlying development theories which would pave the path for the growth of the society which is sustainable (Weigel 2006). This research makes an attempt to understand the diverse development paradigms that are prevalent in the existing literature in line with the concept of information and communication technology as a means to development. Then there is elaborate discussion on the growth of inequitable access to information and communication technology which is popularly addressed as digital divide. This research also makes an attempt to bring together the policies and frameworks which has made an attempt towards bridging this gap so that people have a better access to technology and technology related products. The last section of the research talks about the capability index and how it has emerged as the superior method in measuring the advancement as well as the impact of ICT in achieving the developmental goals of the society (Voogt Netherlands 2010). State of The Art/Literature Review: The concept of information society which has become extremely popular over the last few decades underpins the fact that it has to pass thorough several phases of evolution to establish itself in the society. It has been closely intertwined with the goals of modernization and globalization which has driven the development of society as a whole. Information has emerged as the cornerstone of evolution in countries all over the world and there has been integration among the participants all over the world through information technology (Sutthichaimethee 2016). Information technology is viewed as a tool to develop a nation and participate in the development process. As such with the advent of globalization there has been increased application of information and communication technology which makes it all the more imperative (Strauss 2003). But over the years researchers have seriously questioned the efficacy of such growth measure since it has been seen invariably that growth in one measure leads to underdevelopment in the other. It is generally seen that when one country excels in economic progress the other tends to lag behind. This disparity is widespread and although measures have been taken to bridge the gap it has not been much successful (Schware Choudhury 2008). The reason for this disparity lies more with capitalism than with the use and applicability of information and communication technology. But these has motivate the developing world to question the traditional concepts of development which the western world has relied upon and how it can be customized to meet their needs and requirements. The same is true with information and communication technology as it is seen as the medium and channel of growth in the western countries but the same has not been true for the emerging markets although there has been instances of change. ICTs are mostly value-driven, contextual and moulded by the local features rather than a standardized process. All these factors have led to the unequal growth of ICT all over the world (Rodrigues, Marks Steel 2003). Similar debates have also been raised regarding the efficacy of ICT as the medium of development. Few scholar are of the opinion it has percolated the divide more than it has contributed to the social upliftment of the downtrodden (Rovegno 2002). However, there is also a significant majority to whom ICT is viewed as a measuring tool for the sustainable development of individuals, communities and nations, hence, a necessity. ICT have the potential to play the role of game changer in several of the crucial public administration mechanisms like business, education, health, and environment, among others (Qureshi 2011). It has been argued in several researches that ICT act as the elixir which paves the path for growth and development in economically weaker sections of the society. This has motivated the considerably low income countries to move for digital transformation which will in tune take care of the developmental problems. However this is an assumption which is best described only in theoretical models but its practical applicability is widely debated. The concept that access to information technology leads to increase in production, participate in labour markets, and contribute in reciprocal exchanges with other people has not been proved successful universally. People have also tried to establish their argument in favour of ICT through empirical evidence which states the growing proportion of ICTs in the world economic output. The most optimistic viewpoint is that the growth of ICT would empower the emerging markets to leapfrog the stages of development and be on the same footing with the d eveloped nations (Qureshi 2010). This would be driven by the outsourcing of information and communication technology activities from the businesses in the developed nation and their implementation by the experts in the developing countries. In short this would lead to the rise of the service industry and bring about the radical change in the economy of the emerging markets. A result to substantiate these claims can be seen from the study which was conducted to prove that the correlation between growth and prosperity to the use of smartphones is more profound in the developing countries than in the developed nations (Parker 2008). There are also several opposing views regarding the efficacy of ICT since many scholars are of the opinion that this will only result in further inequalities with respect to opportunities that are available (Paraskeva et al. 2007). It is generally observed that the geographies that are well connected and have been governed by a good administration with several economic and social advantages have been best posed to reap the benefits of ICTs. On the other hand, countries which have unstable government with limited access to infrastructure and social or cultural stigmas prevalent in their society have not been able to leverage the growth and development through ICTs. The concept of integrating poor nations with internet or ICTs have proved to be an abstract concept. A perfect example would an emerging country like India where ICT have helped in the development of the information technology industry but have failed in the social upliftment or providing amenities to the poor. The inequali ty and digital divide between the rich and poor have evolved and expanded over the years in a country like India. The same can be told about another developing nations. In those nations ICT development are not so crucial than investing in other pressing requirements (Mohammad Kamal 2016). Then there is the middle-ground opinion which talks about the development agenda through ICTs only if they are applied properly. Few scholars have investigated and come out with the opinion that increase in telecommunication and installation of telephone have resulted in the development of the rural people (Martens 2015). This calls for further research in this domain to ascertain the hypothesis that whether ICT installation and expansion can facilitate the social and economic growth of a country particularly the poor. Existing research does not specifically talk about the targeted benefits of ICTs in developing countries. They are more focused on the generic benefits that a country reaps through the implementation of IT and engineering solutions. However, it has been observed empirically that most of these benefits are leveraged by the wealthy and well to do people of a country (Kostakos Ferreira 2015). As we have discussed about several issue there is also considerable discussion regarding the issue of digital divide which has led to the inequitable distribution of economic benefits through information technology. For further discussion one needs to understand the definition of digital divide which is concerned with "situations in which there is a marked gap in access to or use of ICT devices" (Khwaja 2016). There is also ensuing debate in this respect as a group of scholar believe that the need for a discussion on digital divide is irrelevant since all the people who are in need of digital services especially in the developing countries have already access to such services or they must not be needing them and for that reason do not have them. However there has been several instances where it has been proved that if the reach of the digital services can be extended to those people then it leads to significant improvement in their lifestyle. There have been very stark examples withi n the same country where ICTs have been able to transform the lives of a certain part of the country while the remaining sections still live in oblivion (Faler 2010). It is expected that in the near future these differences will be eradicated through improved delivery of ICT infrastructure and social inclusion drive which aims to bring more people under the realm of the information society. There has been significant rise in the development of computing power, reduction in the cost of transportation of data through optical fibre networks, and significant convergence of information and communication technologies. At the end it can be said that this research deals more with the issue of bridging the gap rather than the requirement for debating that whether there is digital divide or not (Dror 2004). Research Questions, Aims and Objectives: The aim of the research is to understand the impact of ICTs on the growth and development of the social and economic sectors in the country. Their impact in transforming the lives of the downtrodden by providing them with increased scope for job opportunities and other facilities. The specific research objective questions include: What are the specific impacts of ICTs in the lower strata of the society especially in the developing countries? What are different methods of measurement to determine the above impact? To investigate the numerous methods that can be employed for bridging the gap between the ICT implementation of developed and developing countries? Theoretical Content/Research Methodology: The theoretical basis on which the research will be designed is the impact of digital transformation on the developing nations with special reference to the low income people in the society. The hypothesis for the analysis would be as follows: Advancement in ICT and digital transformation does not lead to any significant development of the low income people at the bottom of the pyramid particularly in developing nations. The methodology that will be used for the investigation of the aforementioned research topic is both qualitative and quantitative which is popularly called as the mixed methodology. The qualitative aspect will be looking at the social and economic factors of a country which have led to the failure of bridging the gap in development through the implementation of ICTs. The governance in the country and their political stability will be critically analysed to understand the effects and expansion of ICTs. As this requires data of diverse country sets it will be mostly conducted through secondary research and publicly available data for the analysis purpose (Dagiene Grabauskiene 2011). The quantitative model will be based on the capability index approach formulated by Amartya Sen for which he was awarded wide accolades. This index is mainly concerned with calculating the human development index which can be derived by incorporating several factors. This index can be modified as per the needs of the research and then applied to dig out the factors which is leading to the digital divide or disparity among the people in the country. This mixed methodology is expected to be successful in evaluating the research objectives as stated in the previous section (Burnett et al. 2006). Experimental Set Up: Sometimes in a quest to acquire record and data points, we might have to evaluate records which are confidential in nature or should not be disclosed in public. As we would try to maintain the privacy and accuracy of such data people might be sceptical about the use of such information. But in order achieve success in the research it has to be designed in such a manner so that it can be employed and utilised in the best possible manner to get the outcomes which are not skewed or biased (Browne Gavin 2010). Results and Outcome: At the end of the research proposal discussion it can be said that this article has thoroughly discussed all the aspects of the present literature that is available and also highlighted the issues that are pressing in this domain. With this research it is expected to understand the various reasons behind digital divide and the factors which have led to underdevelopment of few nations although there has been widespread implementation of ICT. The methodology of the research design id appropriate for the analysis that has been decided and would fetch the best possible results. Finally it is justified to mention that this research makes an attempt to critically analysed and investigate the reasons for the failed implementation of ICTs in the developing countries with special reference to the downtrodden people (Angeli Valanides 2005). Project Planning And Gantt Chart: Dates are indicative and can be replaced by actual project dates. References Angeli, C. Valanides, N. 2005, 'Preservice elementary teachers as information and communication technology designers: An instructional systems design model based on an expanded view of pedagogical content knowledge', Journal of Computer Assisted Learning, vol. 21, no. 4, pp. 292302. Browne, P. Gavin, T. 2010, 'Support for information technology development', Information Development, vol. 6, no. 1, pp. 2027. Burnett, C., Dickinson, P., Myers, J. 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